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A Journey Through Ancient Lydia

Historical Overview

Situated in the ancient region of Lydia, Sardis unfolds its rich history at the foothills of the Tmolus Mountains, commanding a view of the Hermus River plain. Evidence of human activity dates back to the Palaeolithic period, around 50,000 B.C. Recent excavations primarily focus on the Archaic era, particularly the 7th and 6th centuries B.C., when Sardis reached its zenith as the capital of the Lydian empire Phrygian Art and Culture in Anatolia. Additionally, attention is given to the Late Roman era when the city continued to thrive.

Archaeological Marvels

Archaeological highlights from the Archaic period include the royal burial mounds at Bin Tepe, the city wall, and a gold-working installation on the Pactalus River. Monuments from later periods, such as the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine, boast structures like the temple of Artemis, a bath-g

Phrygian Art and Culture in Anatolia


Influences and Connections

Phrygian art, shaped by influences from Hittite and Urartian cultures, played a role in inspiring Etruscan art in Italy. Simultaneously, the Phrygians were directly influenced by the Urartu civilization in Eastern Anatolia. An example is the incorporation of the Urartian bull’s head figure into a distinctly Phrygian cauldron. Metalwork, utilizing known metal ores, gained prominence in the Early and Mid-Bronze Ages from 2500 BC. However, it was around 1000 BC that Phrygian metalwork, borrowing from pottery and metal vessels, became widely popular.

Phrygian Art Categories

Phrygian art can be categorized into three groups:

Local Phrygian ware
Urartian import ware
Assyrian import ware
These categories further distinguish artifacts found in mounds dating before 695 BC.

Evolution of Phrygian Pottery

Phrygian pottery during this period showcased fine polychrome ware, categorized as early and

Early Christian Influences and Phrygians in Anatolia


Early Christian Influences

The early spread of Christianity in this region owes much to St. Paul. However, the 2nd century AD witnessed the emergence of two distinct sects: Montanism and Novationism. Montanism, rooted in the teachings of the local prophet Montanus, prophesied the imminent end of the world. Novationism, named after the Roman theologian Bishop Novatian, gave rise to the followers known as “the pure” or “katharoi” in Greek. This movement, later influencing the Cathar heresy of the Middle Ages, staunchly opposed the readmission of lapsed Christians into the Church Sardis.

Phrygians in Anatolia Builders and Rulers

The Phrygians, part of the “people of the Aegean Sea” migrating tribes, arrived in Anatolia around 1200 BC. Initially settling in Central Anatolia, they established their towns over the ruins of Hittite cities such as Hattusas, Alacahöyük, Pazarli, and Alisar. By the early 8th

Turkish War part 21

However he never ceased caring for Diogenes, and was heard to sigh deeply for him; he displayed great kindness towards him and tried to console him and reinstated him in most of the possessions...

Turkish War part 20

For the man they load with blessings and escort and hold in high respect to-day, they treat in exactly the opposite way without feeling any shame, when they see the throw of his life’s...

Turkish War part 19

The Emperor himself was not altogether at his ease (I speak humanly, without regard to the fact that he trusted every thing to God), for considering the mixed character of the meeting he feared...

Turkish War part 18

These were afraid that amidst the popular concourse on the morrow a few men might make a dash at the Emperor and cut him to pieces on the throne, as men often carried their...

Turkish War part 17

After Diogenes had been detected, put into chains and banished, the leading men in his conspiracy who had not already been arrested, knew that they had become objects of suspicion and grew very nervous...

Turkish War part 16

VIII Then the Emperor sent for Mouzaces and told him to take other armed men with him and fetch Diogenes from the Great Domestic’s tent and conduct him to his own and keep him...

Turkish War part 15

Once or twice he pulled at his sword whilst stammering forth imaginary petitions, then in despair threw himself on the ground and lay there begging for mercy. The Emperor turned his horse to...

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