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Roots of Pharmacy

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Recording Centuries of Medical Wisdom

In the times of Roman imperial power and culture, scholars started documenting all the medical knowledge gathered through years of study and conquest. The renowned book “De Materia Medica” by military doctor Dioscorides, outlining over six hundred remedies from plants, animals, and minerals, laid the foundation for pharmacology. Dioscorides also wrote about poisons and their antidotes. A bit earlier, physician Cornelius Celsus compiled an extensive encyclopedia of Greek and Alexandrian medicine Galen.

Shaping the Course of Pharmacy

In the second century of the Christian era, Galen (Claudius Galenus), born in Pergamum, Asia Minor, became a pivotal figure. Born on September 22, 131, he passed away in Rome in 201. This Greco-Roman doctor, pharmacist, and philosopher authored around five hundred books and treatises, emerging as the leading scientist of his time. Galen’s writings on med

Galen

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A Notable Greek Physician (130-200)

Early Life and Education

Galen, a renowned Greek physician and teacher, was born in Pergamun. His father, inspired by a dream, carefully educated him and chose the medical profession for him. Galen received education in Pergamun, Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria.

Medical Practice and Achievements

After completing his studies, Galen practiced medicine in his hometown and later became the physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius in Rome. He wrote an impressive 500 works on medical and philosophical topics, and today, 83 of these treatises are still available.

Contributions to Medicine

Galen served as a surgeon to gladiators, conducting vivisections and post mortems on animals like the Barbary ape but not on humans. He followed a mix of medical philosophies, combining the teachings of Hippocrates and Plato while also introducing his own ideas.

Systemizing Greco-Roman Medicine

Galen played a

Archaeological Discoveries in Ephesus

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Uncovering the Past

Exploring Ancient Streets and Buildings

Various parts of Ephesus have been uncovered, revealing historical streets and public structures:

City Market and Bouleuterion (Council Meeting Place)
Prytaneion (Meeting Quarters of Religious Authorities)
Roman Imperial Cult Sanctuaries
Tetragonos Agora (Trade Market)
Theatre for 24,000 Spectators
Inner-City Bath-Gymnasium Complexes

Late Antiquity Cathedral Marienkirche

The most significant building from late antiquity is the Marienkirche Roots of Pharmacy, a cathedral dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It stands on the site of the Olympieon, a temple honoring Emperor Hadrian, which was leveled around 400 A.D.

Public Library and South Gate Façade

Built around 110 A.D., the elaborate façade of the city’s public library, near the South Gate of the Agora, was constructed based on the wishes of Celsus Polemea

A Domestic Animal part 5

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“Thither she escaped, hither she ran!”The confusion itself was very extraordinary.“Surely, Pup is killed,” Ko chan said, trembling.At last, she has escaped. A man with a big oak club in his hand, shook his...

A Domestic Animal part 4

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Meanwhile, the spring has come. And at the time when the frost began to melt she seemed to be quite grown up. All the dogs, from Kin san`s Pochi to Kuro of the bathing...

A Domestic Animal part 3

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It was not only once or twice that she met such hard experiences. But she was not a dog to be crushed down by this kind of hardship. She would hunt around for food...

A Domestic Animal part 2

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There was an old Mokusei in the garden. She decided to make of their shade her resting place; stretching out her four legs on the ground, which was warmed by the sunshine through the...

A Domestic Animal part 1

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Shimazaki Toson (1871-1943)Shimazaki Toson began writing as a poet of the new era, but after the Russo-Japanese war, he turned to naturalistic fiction. He wrote novels derived more or less directly from Europe, but...

Forebodings Two Sketches part 5

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This condition of lonely self-torment lasted a long while, and increased his exasperation.And then, one day, he noticed that his healthy foot was growing stiff and the ankle swelling. When the head-surgeon came on...

Forebodings Two Sketches part 4

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Everything real seemed to disappear; only dimly lighted, vacant space remained, pervaded by the smell of chloroform. He seemed to be in the interior of a huge cone, stretching along the ground like a...

Falcon part 1

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Turkish War part 21

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