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Antiochus the Great and the Shifting Fortunes


Antiochus III’s Reversal of Fortunes

Antiochus III (223-187) emerged as the sole Seleucid monarch capable of halting the kingdom’s decline. Despite his efforts to rebuild Alexander’s empire, he faced an insurmountable obstacle—the rising power of the Roman Republic, which marked the beginning of the nation that would later dominate the New Testament era The Splendor of Pergamun.

Strategic Victories and Setbacks

Antiochus showcased his military prowess by reclaiming Atropatene under Seleucid rule in 220. Launching the Fourth Syrian War (219-217) against Egypt, he aimed to exploit the weaknesses of Egypt’s ruler, Ptolemy IV. Despite marching with his war elephants down the Levant, Antiochus suffered a decisive defeat at the Battle of Raphia (217), just south of Gaza. Forced to retreat to Syria, the Orontes River once again marked the border between the northern and southern kingdoms.


The Splendor of Pergamun


Champions of Hellenism

Eumenes I Breaking Free and Expanding

Eumenes I (263-241), the nephew and adopted son, liberated Pergamun from the Seleucid rule. Forming an alliance with Ptolemy III, he seized a piece of Seleucid territory. His successor, Attalus I (241-197), achieved a remarkable victory against the Galatians Antiochus III’s Eastern Campaigns and Power Dynamics, posed challenges for the Seleucids, and meddled in Greek affairs. While officially advocating Hellenism in Asia Minor, many Greeks viewed him as a Roman tool as Rome began asserting itself in the region.

Pergamun’s Modest Monarchs

Despite their equal authority, the kings of Pergamun, including Eumenes I and Attalus I, lived more modestly compared to their counterparts. A key factor in their success was avoiding internal power struggles and family conflicts, unlike other Greek monarchies. Devoted to cultu

Barbecue Tips and Global Grill Culture


Estimate the amount of coal well. Spread coal pieces an additional ten centimeters from the left and right edges of the grill area. Don’t add coal afterward.

Don’t start grilling before reaching high temperatures.

Keep the grill clean. If it is dirty, the food will stick to the wire. It is best to brush it and wash with soap after each barbecue party. Also, before using it again, wash, dry, and place it on the barbecue.

To avoid meat, fish, or vegetables sticking to the grill, oil the wires before you start The Evolution of Mangal Tradition in Turkey.

Don’t turn them using forks. Use tongs.

Cook thick meat pieces by covering them.

Rest the grilled meat for a few minutes before serving.

Never leave your spot by the barbecue so that you can keep an eye on hazards and also check if the meat is cooked right.

Australia and New Zealand Know the Drill

The Evolution of Mangal Tradition in Turkey


The history of mangal in our country dates back to the 1400s. This setup, initially used for cooking coffee during the Ottoman Empire’s reign, gradually became an integral part of our culture and expanded to include the preparation of meat. Mangal setups are typically constructed from metal plates of steel, iron, copper, or brass, available in square and round types.

Mangal’s transformation into an essential part of picnic ceremonies aligns with the accelerated migration from rural areas to cities in the 1960s. Although the term ‘picnic’ originates from the French language, there’s no denying that we have surpassed the British and developed a deep love for picnics The Joyful Journey of Climbing Mountains. In the past, people preferred cold-cut foods for picnics to preserve freshness. Today, safety and cleanliness precautions are crucial in picnic areas due to the potential fire and pollutio

The Joyful Journey of Climbing Mountains


The Sweet Tiredness of Climbing

In the chilly days of March, we embarked on a mountain path leading to Barla, raindrops from the clouds above sprinkling on us. We took a break by a brook, absorbing the scent, color, and essence of the mountains, which overflowed with rain.

In small groups, we shared snacks from our backpacks under a tree or on rocks. Continuing our journey, we said, “The traveler should keep moving.” As we reached the small lake in Barla, the rain turned into a storm, and we became part of the steppe grass. We were completely soaked, transforming into a vibrant savanna. Our internal deserts, longing for water, rain, and blessings, turned green. Hills seemed to urge the next ones to guard us and bid farewells. Perhaps they whispered Barbecue Tips and Global Grill Culture, “Don’t leave us alone; come by from time to time.” Or maybe it was just my imagination.


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